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  • 你如何在网上被追踪,又该如何应对

    来源:参考消息2018年4月11日 2018-04-17 14:27:37 点击:277 赞美:16

    How You're Tracked Online - and  What You Can Do About It

    你如何在网上被追踪,又该如何应对

    Though Facebook gets the attention because of a recent privacy gaffe the social network is far from alone in collecting massive amounts of data on you to help marketers sell you stuff.

    Here are some of the ways to block or minimize such tracking  but they come with trade-offs.

    TRACKING IDs Websites have long used unique IDs in cookies” — data files stored in your browser  to know it's you when you return a week later. Cookies also let advertising networks run by the likes of Facebook and Google connect you as you visit multiple websites. Phones and tablets have a device advertising ID that apps can use to track you.

    Combatting this: You can reset the cookie ID by clearing cookies periodically. Most browsers also have a private mode to limit tracking through cookiesthough it's not foolproof. Companies can still link you if you've signed in for instance. As for the device ID you can reset that or tell advertisers not to target ads through the phone's settings.

    The trade-offs: You'll still get ads just not targeted ones. And clearing cookies makes your browser forget who you are so you'll have to sign back into any site that was saving your login.

    LOCATION SERVICES Many apps need your location to work. Mapping apps for instance can't tell you when to turn without knowing where you are. Video services typically have rights only in certain countries and need to verify your location. But location can be used for much more.

    Combatting this: You can turn off location services in the phone's settings though for apps to work properly it's better to turn them off for specific services that don't really need them.

    The trade-offs: Some apps won't work without your location. Others such as weather apps will require you enter your location manually. And you might miss out on recommendations such as better commuting routes via apps like Waze.

    SIGNING IN Signing into an online account gives services a sure-fire way of tracking you. Facebook won't work at all without an account; Google merely works better with one. And you'll generally need an account with any service that charges you although sometimes you can sign in with your Facebook or Google ID instead.

    Combatting this: Resist creating an account or signing whenever you can  such as when you're merely browsing rather than buying. Avoid using Facebook or Google IDs whenever possible as those companies could then track you. You can also use a different email address for each account to frustrate efforts to connect you across services although it can be a major pain.

    The trade-offs: Some services require signing inand creating accounts on each service means more passwords to remember though you might consider using a password manager. Whatever you dodon't reuse the same passwords across service; that makes them easy to hack.

    IP ADDRESS The Internet Protocol address lists where your phone or computer lives on the internet; it's how you get messages and load websites. But IP addresses can also help companies remember who you are and link the various devices you use since most homes use a single IP address for the whole network. Databases can also map IP addresses to physical locations.

    Combatting this: You can mask your IP address by using a secure intermediary. VPN services com-mon in corporate settings will route your traffic through a separate IP address; a secure web browser called Tor automatically sends traffic through multiple third parties. You still need to avoid signing in.

    The trade-offs: Tor can slow down performanceparticularly with high-data tasks such as video. And with VPNs you need to trust the VPN operator whether that's your boss or a private service.

    脸书网站最近因在隐私问题上的失误受到关注,但收集大量用户数据以帮助商家推销商品的绝非该社交网站一家。

    以下是阻断或最大限度减少此类跟踪的几种方式——但都有得有失。

    跟踪ID 网站早就开始利用cookie”——储存在你浏览器中的数据文件——中的唯一ID在你一周后回来时认出你。Cookie还使脸书和谷歌之类公司经营的广告网络能够在你访问多个网站时连接上你。手机和平板电脑都有一个设备广告ID,应用程序可用它来跟踪你。

    反制:你可以通过定期清理cookie来重置cookieID。此外,大多数浏览器有一个限制通过cookie进行跟踪的隐私模式,尽管它并非绝对可靠。例如,如果你已经登录,那些公司仍然可以连接上你。至于设备ID,你可以通过手机设置进行重置或告诉广告商不要投放有针对性的广告。

    得失:你仍会收到广告,只不过不是有针对性的广告。并且,清理cookie会让浏览器忘记你是谁,因此你必须重新登录原本会保存着你的登录信息的网站。

    定位服务 许多应用程序需要获知你的位置才能运行。例如,地图软件如果不知道你在哪里就无法告诉你何时转弯。视频服务往往只在某些国家有版权,因此需要核实你的位置。但定位能被用来做远远更多的事情。

    反制:你可以在手机设置中关闭定位服务,但为了让应用程序正常工作,最好是针对不必使用位置信息的特定服务关掉此功能。

    得失:某些应用程序若没有你的位置信息就无法工作。还有些应用程序、比如天气软件会要求你手动输入位置。另外,你可能会错过一些建议,比如通过位智等应用程序获取更佳通勤路线。

    登录 登录网上账户使服务商肯定能跟踪到你。脸书网站没有账户就完全无法使用,谷歌则只是有账户的话更好用。通常情况下,使用任何收费服务都需要账户,虽然有时你可以用脸书或谷歌ID登录。

    反制:只要有可能就拒绝创建账户或登录——例如在你只是浏览而不购物时。尽可能避免使用脸书或谷歌ID,因为那样一来那些公司就能跟踪到你。你还可以在每个账户中使用不同电子邮件地址以挫败跨服务连接上你的企图,尽管这样做可能非常麻烦。

    得失:有些服务需要登录,而且在每个服务中都创建账户意味着有更多密码要记(不过你可以考虑使用密码管理器)。不管怎样,不要跨服务重复使用相同密码;那会使它们易遭黑客攻击。

    IP地址 互联网协议(IP)地址记录着你的手机或计算机在互联网上的位置;你正是借此收取讯息、加载网页的。但IP地址也可以帮助公司记住你是谁并将你使用的各种设备联系到一起,因为大多数家庭在整个网络中使用仅仅一个IP地址。数据库还能将IP地址与地理位置对应起来。

    反制:你可以通过使用一个安全的中介来隐藏IP地址。在企业环境中常见的VPN服务通过另一个IP地址传输流量;一种名为Tor的安全网络浏览器自动通过多个第三方传输流量。你仍需避免登录。

    得失:Tor浏览器会拖慢网速,尤其是像视频这样的高数据任务。使用VPN的话,你需要信任VPN运营者,不管是你老板还是私人服务机构。

    裘芳译自美联社 4月1日文章) 责编  连国辉

    《参考消息》2018411

     

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